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Concrete Mix Design

<strong>Concrete Mix Design:  Achieving the Proper Concrete Mix


Concrete Mix design refers to the process of determining the proper ratio of the concrete mix to the coarse aggregate, sand and cement.  For instance, if there is a 1:1:3 this means that for every bag of the cement there will be one portion of the fine aggregates (sand and cement) and three portion of coarse aggregate.  The proportions used can either be determined using Mass or Volume.  The ratio of water and cement is typically expressed using mass.


The Requirements in Determining the Right Concrete Mix Ration


  • The grade that indicates the strength required for the distinct concrete
  • The cement type which can affect the development of the strength of the concrete.
  • The highest minimum mass of the aggregates that will be utilized on the concrete that should be within the standard recommended by the IS 456:2000.
  • The content of the cement
  • The concrete’s workability


Concrete Calculator


  1. The first procedure is to properly identify the mean of the targeted strength (ft) by utilizing the compressive strength (fck) and combining it with the amount of the quality control.


  1. After successfully identifying the ft, it is now time to compute the water-cement ratio using the concrete calculator. We can compute this by determining the empirical connection between the fck and the water-cement ratio.


  1. Compute the estimate amount of captured air in the minimum amount.


  1. Determine the water content depending on the workability of the concrete and the highest nominal amount of aggregate.


  1. The percentage of the fine aggregate should then be determined using the absolute volume.


  1. Mildly adjust the percentage of the sand and the amount of the water content when using different workability, the nominal size of the aggregates and the water-cement ratio.


  1. Based on the water-cement ratio that you just computed, determine the amount of cement depending on the level of durability.


  1. Next, calculate the fine and coarse aggregate in volume by using the percent of sand and the mass of water and cement that you determined in the previous steps. Follow this distinct procedure.



Note:  The V refers to the absolute volume which can be computed by determining the total amount of volume subtracted against the entrapped air’s volume. Sc is tantamount to the distinct gravity of concrete.  W is the water mass, C is cement mass, p means ration of the fine aggregate to the total amount of aggregate, Ca or fa refers to the total aggregate and the Sca or Sfa equates to the distinct gravity of the saturated concrete.


  1. Identify the concrete mix design that you will used on your initial trial and mix it using concrete mixer.
  2. After the successful initial trial, you should prepare the concrete with your concrete mix ration and then determine its strength and the durability.


  1. Adjust the initial mixes until you achieved your preferred concrete mix design.


By following this detailed concrete calculator, you will be able to get the proper concrete mix design that is durable enough for its specific application.

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